Template:Refimprove World music is a general categorical term for global music, such as the traditional music or folk music of a culture that is created and played by indigenous musicians and is closely related to the music of the regions of their origin.
Template:See also The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through doctoral programs in the discipline. To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry, and it is generally used to classify any kind of non-Western music.Template:Citation needed
There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the word virtually meaningless. The term also is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that were previously described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not exclusively traditional folk music. It may refer to the indigenous classical forms of various regions of the world, and to modern, cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", or "someone else's local music".
World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, and often features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora (West African harp), the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo.
Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles naturally influence one another, and in recent years world music has also been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists with which it has been associated, can be found in such disciplines as anthropology, folkloristics, performance studies and ethnomusicology.
Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto music, Indian raga music, Tibetan chants), Eastern European folk music (e.g. the village music of the Balkans) and the many forms of folk and tribal music of the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Oceania and Central and South America. The Breton musician Alan Stivell pioneered the connection between traditional folk music, modern rock music and world music with his 1970's album Renaissance of the Celtic Harp.
The broad category of world music includes isolated forms of ethnic music from diverse geographical regions. These dissimilar strains of ethnic music are commonly categorized together by virtue of their indigenous roots. Over the 20th century, the invention of sound recording, low-cost international air travel and common access to global communication among artists and the general public has given rise to a related phenomenon called "crossover" music. Musicians from diverse cultures and locations could readily access recorded music from around the world, see and hear visiting musicians from other cultures and visit other countries to play their own music, creating a melting pot of stylistic influences.
While communication technology allows greater access to obscure forms of music, the pressures of commercialization also present the risk of increasing musical homogeny, the blurring of regional identities, and the gradual extinction of traditional local music-making practices.
Popular non-Western genresEdit
Although it primarily describes traditional music, the world music category also includes popular music from non-Western urban communities (e.g. South African "township" music) and non-European music forms that have been influenced by other so-called third-world musics (e.g. Afro-Cuban music), although Western-style popular song sourced from non-English-speaking countries in Western Europe (e.g. French pop music) would not generally be considered world music.
Paris is one of the great European capitals for world music. For many years, the city has attracted numerous musicians from former colonies in West Africa and North Africa. This thriving scene is aided by the fact that there are many concerts and institutions that help promote the music.
Algerian and Moroccan music have an important presence in the French capital. Hundreds of thousands of Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have settled in Paris, bringing the sounds of Amazigh (Berber), raï, and Gnawa music. Algerian raï also found a large French audience, especially Cheb Mami.
After 1987: WOMAD and beyond Edit
The origins of the term world music (in relation to the selling of this type of music) began in 1982 when World Music Day (Fête de la Musique) was initiated in France. World Music Day has been celebrated on 21 June every year since then. On Monday 29 June 1987 a meeting of interested parties gathered to capitalise on the marketing of this genre. Arguably popular interest was sparked with the release in 1986 of Paul Simon's Graceland album. The concept behind the album was to express his own sensibilities using the sounds he had fallen in love with while listening to artists from Southern Africa, including Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Savuka. This project and the work of Peter Gabriel and Johnny Clegg among others had, to some degree, introduced non-Western music to a wider audience. This was an opportunity which could not be ignored.
Before 1987, world music had a following but it was still difficult for interested parties to sell their music to the larger music stores. Although specialist music stores had been important in developing the genre over many years, the record companies, broadcasters and journalists had been finding it difficult to build a following because the music, itself, seemed too scarce. However, they were aware that the jazz and classical markets had developed a crossover audience and decided that the best way forward would be to have a collective strategy in order to bring the music to a wider audience.
At around this time, Cultural Co-operation started the Music Village Festival. A regular series of free world music festivals which are running to this day. A network of world music artists was also created to help promote their work.
The first concern of the meetings was to select the umbrella name that this "new" music would be listed under. Suggestions included world beat and prefixing words such as "hot" or "tropical" to existing genre titles. World music won after a show of hands, but initially it was not meant to be the title for a whole new genre, rather something which all of the record labels could place on the sleeves of records in order to distinguish them during the forthcoming campaign. It only became a title for the genre after an agreement that despite the publicity campaign, this wasn't an exclusive club and that for the good of all, any label which was selling this type of music would be able to take advantage.
Another issue which needed to be addressed was the distribution methods which existed at the time. Most of the main labels were unhappy with the lack of specialist knowledge displayed by sales persons which led to poor service; there was also a reluctance amongst many of the larger outlets to carry the music, because they understandably liked larger releases which could be promoted within store. It was difficult to justify a large presentation expense if the stock going into stores was limited.
One of the marketing strategies used in the vinyl market at the time was the use of browser cards, which would appear in the record racks. As part of the world music campaign it was decided that these would be a two colour affair designed to carry a special offer package; to aid the retailer a selection of labels would also be included.
In an unprecedented move, all of the world music labels coordinated together and developed a compilation cassette for the cover of the music magazine NME. The overall running time was ninety minutes, each package containing a mini-catalogue showing the other releases on offer.
By the time of a second meeting it was becoming clear that in order for the campaign to be successful, it should have its own dedicated press officer. The press officer would be able to juggle the various deadlines and also be able to sell the music as a concept to not just the national stations, but also regional DJs who were keen to expand the variety of music they could offer. The DJs were a key resource as it was important for "world music" to be seen as something which could be important to people outside London - most regions after all had a similarly rich folk heritage which could be tapped into. A cost effective way of achieving all this would be a leafleting campaign.
The next step was to develop a world music chart, gathering together selling information from around fifty shops, so that it would finally be possible to see which were big sellers in the genre — allowing new listeners to see what was particularly popular. It was agreed that the NME could again be involved in printing the chart and also Music Week and the London listings magazine City Limits. It was also suggested that Andy Kershaw might be persuaded to do a run down of this chart on his show regularly.
World Music MonthEdit
October 1987 was designated 'World Music Month'. A music festival, Crossing the Border, was held at the Town & Country Club in London, and it was the start of the winter season for both WOMAD and Arts Worldwide. The main press release stressed the issues inherent in the campaign.
Since the early 80s the enthusiasm for music from 'outside' Western pop culture has been steadily mounting. More and more international artists, many of whom are big stars in their own countries, are coming to England on tour. They started off, like the Bhundu Boys, playing small clubs and pubs, but now many acts are so popular that they are filling larger venues.
The excitement and word-of-mouth appeal is backed up by radio. Examples of shows that feature world music include World of Music on Voice of America, Transpacific Sound Paradise on WFMU, The Planet on Australia's ABC Radio National, DJ Edu presenting D.N.A: DestiNation Africa on BBC Radio 1Xtra, Adil Ray on the BBC Asian Network, Andy Kershaw's show on BBC Radio 3 and Charlie Gillett's show on the BBC World Service.
Today, mainstream music has adopted many of the features of world music, and artists such as the Buena Vista Social Club have reached a much wider audience. At the same time world music has been influenced by hip hop, pop and jazz. Even heavy metal bands such as Tool and Nile have incorporated world music into their own. Some entertainers who cross over to recording from film and television will often start with world music; Steven Seagal is a recent example.
World music radio programs these days often play African hip hop or reggae artists, crossover Bhangra and Latin American jazz groups, etc. Public radio and webcasting are an important way for music enthusiasts all over the world to hear the enormous diversity of sounds and styles which, collectively, amount to world music. The BBC, NPR, and ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) are rich sources for world music where it is possible to listen online as well as read about the artists and history of this genre.
Some musicians and curators of music have come to dislike the term "world music". To these critics, "world music" is a parochial, catch-all marketing term for non-Western music of all genres. On October 3, 1999, David Byrne, the founder of the Luaka Bop music label, wrote an editorial in The New York Times entitled "I Hate World Music" explaining his objections to the term. Byrne argued that the labeling and categorization of other cultures as "exotic" serves to attract an insincere consumership and deter other potential consumers.
- Main article: Awards for world music
There are many world music festivals and jazz, folk, roots, and new age crossover events. A small selection is represented here:
- The Ariano Folkfestival is a five-day world music festival held every summer in Ariano Irpino, a small town in southern Italy.
- Sfinks Festival in Boechout, Belgium is a 4-day world music-festival.
- The California World Music Festival is held each July at the Nevada County Fairgrounds.
- The World Sacred Music Festival is held annually in Olympia, Washington State, sponsored by Interfaith Works.
- FloydFest in Floyd, Virginia, United States, has featured artists from a wide diversity of styles including Ani DiFranco, Geno Delafose & French Rockin' Boogie, Trumystic, Nickel Creek and Akoya Afrobeat Enemble.
- The Finger Lakes GrassRoots Festival of Music and Dance in Trumansburg, New York, United States, has featured artists from a variety of world and ethnic music genres including Tinariwen, Thomas Mapfumo, Michael Franti, D'Gary, Boubacar Traore, Mamadou Diabate, and many more from around the world.
- The WOMAD Foundation organizes festivals in countries around the world. These festivals have featured artists including Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Youssou N'Dour, Robert Plant and Jaojoby.
- The Festival in the Desert takes place every year at Essakane, near Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africa and has achieved international status in spite of the difficulties of reaching its location.
- Rainforest World Music Festival is another world music festival held in Malaysia.
- Stern Grove Festival is a San Francisco celebration of musical and cultural diversity. Examples: Lucinda Williams, John Doe, Ojos de Brujo, O-Maya, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, the Funk Brothers and also symphony orchestras and operatic stars.
- The Starwood Festival has been held in July every year since 1981. It has featured such world music acts as Amampondo, Babatunde Olatunji, Badal Roy, Sikiru Adepoju, the Prodigals, Yaya Diallo, Merl Saunders and the Rainforest Band, Baka Beyond, Stephen Kent, Cyro Baptista, Airto Moreira, Muruga Booker, Gaelic Storm, and Halim El-Dabh.
- The World Music Festival Lo Sguardo di Ulisse was first held in 1997 in Campania, Italy.
- Festival Músicas do Mundo, Sines, is a world music festival first held in 1998, in a beautiful village near the coast of Portugal.
- Mawazine is a festival of world music that takes place annually in Rabat, Morocco, featuring Arab and international music icons.
- The TFF Rudolstadt takes place annually on the first full July weekend in Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Germany.
- The German World Music Festival der Klangfreunde takes place every first weekend of August, at Schlosspark Loshausen. Klangfreunde e. V. is a non-profit organization.
- Wilde Töne, Braunschweig
- Glastonbury Festival held at Worthy Farm near Glastonbury each Year.
- Isle of Wight Festival
- Music Village Festival is Europe's longest running festival of world cultures. It is held every 2 years in London and has been running since 1983. It is organised by the Cultural Co-operation.
- Radio 1's Big Weekend is held in May annually. It moves from town to town, and is the biggest free ticketed event in Europe.
- Festival in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Early March each year. 
- The Cross-Culture Warsaw Festival, Poland. September each year. 
- Ethno Port, Poznan, Poland. June each year. 
- Ethno Jazz Festival in Wroclaw, Poland. Several events throughout the whole year. 
- Different Sounds (Inne brzmienia), Lublin, Poland. July each year. 
- Francophonic Festival in Warsaw, Poland. March each year. 
- Nowa Tradycja (New Tradition), Warsaw, Poland. May each year. 
- Siesta Festival, Gdansk, Poland. First edition in April/May 2011. 
- Plai Festival in Timisoara
Spain's most important world music festivals are:
- Etnosur, in Alcalá la Real, Jaén (Andalucía region)
- Pirineos Sur, in Aragón region
- Festival in Getxo (Basque country)
- Festival Internacional de Música Popular Tradicional in Vilanova i la Geltrú / Vilanova International World Music Festival (Catalonia)
- Festival in Ortigueira (Galicia)
- La Mar de Músicas, in Cartagena (Murcia region)
- Fira Mediterrània in Manresa (Catalonia)
- The WOMEX when in Seville (2003, 2006, 2007, 2008)
- Konya Mystic Music Festival, held annually in Konya since 2004, in recent years in commemoration of Rumi's birthday. The festival features traditional music from around the world with a mystical theme, religious function and/or sacred content.
- Svirzh World Music Festival (Lviv region)
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Bohlman 2002, Nidel 2004, p.3
- ↑ fRoots magazine, quoted in N'Dour 2004, p. 1
- ↑ Songlines magazine
- ↑ Bruce Elder. All Music Guide, http://www.answers.com/topic/renaissance-of-the-celtic-harp. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- ↑ World Music Central, p. 12
- ↑ Presumably for shelf or rack edging.
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ "I Hate World Music" editorial by David Byrne in The New York Times
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Festival in the Desert - Artist Detail Information; BBC Four, "Festival in the Desert 2004", 5 November 2004.
- ↑ Mawazine festival website
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Konya Mystic Music Festival Website
- Bohlman, Philip (2002). World Music: A Very Short Introduction, "Preface". ISBN 0-19-285429-1.
- Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World: An Introductory Survey. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505342-7.
- N'Dour, Youssou. "Foreword" to Nickson, Chris (2004). The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music. ISBN 0-399-53032-0.
- Nidel, Richard (2004). World Music: The Basics. ISBN 0-415-96801-1.
- Sorce Keller, Marcello (1996). "Of Minority Musics, Preservation and Multiculturalism: Some Considerations".Template:Citation needed In Echo der Vielfalt: traditionelle Musik von Minderheiten/ethnischen Gruppen = Echoes of Diversity: Traditional Music of Ethnic Groups/Minorities, Schriften zur Volksmusik 16, edited by Ursula Hemetek and Emil H. Lubej.Template:Citation needed Vienna, Cologne, and Weimar: Böhlau Verlag. ISBN 320598594X. Reprinted in Sonus 16, no. 2 (1998): 33- 41.
- Wergin, Carsten (2007). World Music: A Medium for Unity and Difference? EASA Media Anthropology Network: http://www.media-anthropology.net/wergin_worldmusic.pdf.
- Sounds and Colours - magazine about South American music and culture
- World Music at SKY.FM - A free World Music radio channel
- World Music Central - World Music news, reviews, articles and resources
- Rhythm Passport world music / global beats event listings website for the UKast:Música del mundu
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