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Free music can also mean free improvisation: improvised music without any rules, and not in any particular style.
For information on swapping of commercial music see File sharing, Napster or eMule.
For the WikiProject of this name, see WikiProject Free music.

Template:Infobox general

Free music is music that, like free software, can freely be copied, distributed and modified for any purpose. Thus free music is either in the public domain or licensed under a free license by the artist or copyright holder themselves, often as a method of promotion. It does not mean that there should be no fee involved. The word free refers to freedom (as in free software), not to price.[1]

Some free music is licensed under licenses that are intended for software (like the GPL) or other writings (the GFDL). But there are also licenses especially for music and other works of art, such as EFF's Open Audio License, LinuxTag's Open Music License, the Free Art license and some of the Creative Commons Licences.

HistoryEdit

Before the advent of copyright law in the early 18th century, all music was free. Copyright laws changed this gradually so much so that in the late 20th century, copying a few words of a musical composition or a few seconds of a sound recording, the two forms of music copyright, could be considered criminal infringement.[2]

In response, the concept of free music was codified in the Free Music Philosophy[1] by Ram Samudrala in early 1994. It was based on the idea of Free Software by Richard Stallman and coincided with nascent open art and open information movements. Up to this point, few modern musicians distributed their recordings and compositions in an unrestricted manner, and there was no concrete rationale as to why they did it, or should do it.Template:Citation needed

The Free Music Philosophy used a three pronged approach to voluntarily encourage the spread of unrestricted copying, based on the fact that copies of recordings and compositions could be made and distributed with complete accuracy and ease via the Internet. First, since music by its very nature is organic in its growth, the ethical basis of limiting its distribution using copyright laws was questioned. That is, an existential responsibility was fomented upon music creators who were drawing upon the creations of countless others in an unrestricted manner to create their own. Second, it was observed that the basis of copyright law, "to promote the progress of science and useful arts", had been perverted by the music industry to maximise profit over creativity resulting in a huge burden on society (the control of copying) simply to ensure its profits. Third, as copying became rampant, it was argued that musicians would have no choice but to move to a different economic model that exploited the spread of information to make a living, instead of trying to control it with limited government enforced monopolies.[3]

The Free Music Philosophy was reported on by diverse media outlets including Billboard,[4] Forbes,[5] Levi's Original Music Magazine,[6] The Free Radical,[7] Wired[8][9] and The New York Times.[10] Along with free software and Linux (a free operating system), copyleft licenses, the explosion of the Web and rise of P2P, the cementing of mp3 as a compression standard for recordings, and despite the efforts of the music industry, free music became largely the reality in the early 21st century.[11] Organisations such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Creative Commons with free information champions like Lawrence Lessig were devising numerous licenses that offered different flavours of copyright and copyleft. The question was no longer why and how music should be free, but rather how creativity would flourish while musicians developed models to generate revenue in the Internet era.[3][12][13]

Record labels and websites distributing free musicEdit

Bands distributing their music under free conditionsEdit

Title Licenses
Nine Inch Nails One album The Slip released for free
Ophur [18]
Paniq CC BY-SA[19]
Sean Terrington Wright CC BY[20]
Severed Fifth Creative Commons
TWISTED HELICES [21]
DRIVEN MADNESS [22]
subatomicglue
Brunette Models

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Template:Cite web
  2. The No Electronic Theft (NET) act amendments to Titles 17 & 18 of U.S. Code, 1997.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named schulman_1999a
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named billboard_jul181998
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named forbes_jul111997
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named levi_nov192008
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named free_radical_2001
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wired_jun101997
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wired_jun121998
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nyt_dec161998
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named troelsjust
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named music_future
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named napster_compendium
  14. http://auditionrecords.com/about.html
  15. http://www.dogmazic.net/static.php?op=tableau_licences.php
  16. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/jan05/articles/creative.htm
  17. http://www.locarecords.com/mission.html
  18. http://www.ophur.com
  19. http://www.jamendo.com/en/artist/paniq_(2)
  20. http://www.jamendo.com/en/artist/Sean_Wright
  21. http://www.twisted-helices.com/th/
  22. http://reverbnation.com/drivenmadness

External linksEdit

de:freie Musik es:Música libre fr:Musique libre it:Musica libera ka:თავისუფალი მუსიკა pt:Música Livre ru:Свободная музыка

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